High-End FTIR Applications
Using VERTEX Vacuum Spectrometers

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Spectroelectrochemistry with Rapid Scan

Monitoring of Fast Electrochemical Process Without Atmospheric Disturbance.

Further Applications

VERTEX 80v and VERTEX 70v

High-End Research Applications Using VERTEX Series Vacuum Spectrometers.

VerTera THz-Extension for VERTEX 80v

The world's first combined FTIR/cw THz Spectrometer.

UHV FTIR Spectroscopy

VERTEX Vacuum Spectrometers adapted to Customized Ultra-High Vacuum Apparatus.

Step Scan TRS Spectroscopy

VERTEX 80v Provides Highest Accuracy Using Time Resolved Stepwise Data Acquisition.

MIR Photoluminescence (PL)

Amplitude Modulated Step Scan.

Characterization of Ultra-Thin Layers

Highest Sensitivity for Mono-Molecular Layers.

Spectroelectrochemistry
Combined with Rapid Scan

Electrochemical investigations are a very hot topic in basic and applied research. Recently, the world-wide trend of increasing energy consumption requires development of energy storage, e.g. high capacity and low-weight rechargeable batteries. Also in biochemistry or catalysis studies, electrochemistry is of great importance, to understand redox reactions and the behavior of catalysts. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy with electrochemistry offers insight in the molecular change and the reaction process of the studied molecules in addition to the electrochemical response of the experiment.

Fig. 1: Bruker’s reflection unit for electrochemical cells as left) purge version or right) vacuum version.

With Bruker’s reflection unit for electrochemical cells both reflection measurements to monitor changes at the surface of the working electrode and ATR measurements for investigation of electrolytes can be applied. In case of the reflection unit for vacuum spectrometers the entire IR beam path is under vacuum. However, the user has full access to the electrochemical cell from top of the unit, where the cell is adapted, with no need to open the sample compartment and to break the vacuum. It provides users the possibility to refresh the electrolyte solution or the electrodes for repeated or series of measurements keeping other experimental and measurement conditions constant. Furthermore, a higher sensitivity and signal to noise ratio can be achieved using a vacuum spectrometer, especially in the finger print region, because of the absence of atmospheric disturbances.

In many electrochemical investigations fast electrochemical response and reaction kinetics are in the center of interest. To follow the fast potential steps and collect a FTIR spectrum at every applied potential value, just after equilibrium but before the potential is changed again for the next step, rapid scan is highly recommended and in many cases mandatory.

The result will be presented in an OPUS 3D view, not only showing the change along the wavenumber axis but also in dependence of the potential. In 3D-plot an example result from a redox reaction is shown. In this plot the change in absorbance of different vibrational bands during the measurement versus the time dependent potential is monitored. The reference has been measured once at the very beginning of the experiment. Therefore, in a purged FTIR spectrometer the user will probably also see the change of the atmospheric absorbance during the whole electrochemical experiment interfering with the signal of interest. Although atmospheric compensation can be applied by software post processing, the result of a real vacuum measurement will always be superior to post processed data from a purged spectrometer. If a vacuum spectrometer is used, the user does not have to worry about atmospheric disturbance and fluctuation of purge conditions anymore. No subsequent data manipulation will be necessary ensuring highest sensitivity and stability for your research work.

Fig. 2: Three-dimensional presentation of the oxidation of a ferrocyanide solution at potentials ranging from -0.3 V to 0.8 V, shown as 3D-plot in Bruker OPUS software.
click to enlarge

Read the Application Note AN M125 In Situ FTIR Spectroelectrochemistry.
Read the Product Note PN M140 Reflection Unit prepared for Electrochemical Cell.

Further Information

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